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技术文章

卫星和航天器试验做到安全第一

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SAFETY FIRST FOR SATELLITE AND SPACECRAFT TESTS  卫星和航天器试验的安全第一

A solution that provides the smooth ramp-down of vibration testing has helped to safely test the world’s most advanced space telescope

The primary objective of satellite and spacecraft vibration testing is to ensure a high level of confidence in the survivability of flight hardware

during launch. Unfortunately vibration testing is risky and the industry is full of examples where satellites and spacecraft were damaged during test.

Data Physics and Team Corporation combined resources to integrate advanced safety features into vibration test systems.

These features detect and potentially eliminate anomalies that might otherwise cause damage to flight hardware during test. While it is standard practice to

monitor for over-test conditions on the test article, the solution also monitors the entire test system environment, including he vibration test system itself and facility resources such as supplied power. This approach tightly links the health of the entire test environment to automatic and

safe shutdown of the test. If a shutdown event is detected, the vibration test controller will deploy a user-configurable controlled ramp-down to prevent damage

to the satellite or spacecraft – after the trip.

一个提供平稳衰减振动测试的解决方案已经帮助安全测试了世界上最先进的太空望远镜,卫星和航天器振动测试的主要目标是确保在发射对飞行硬件的生存能力有很高的信心

。不幸的是,振动测试是有风险的,这个行业充满了卫星和航天器在测试中受损的例子。Data Physics和Team公司联合资源,将先进的安全特性集成到振动测试系统中。

这些特性可以检测并潜在地消除在测试过程中可能导致飞行硬件损坏的异常。而这是标准的做法,监控测试件上的测试情况,解决方案还监控整个测试系统环境,包括振动测试系统本身和设备资源(如电源)。这种方法将整个测试环境的健康状况紧密地链接到自动和安全关闭测试。如果检测到停机事件,振动测试控制器将部署一个用户可配置的受控斜坡,以防止损坏到卫星或宇宙飞船-旅行后。[自动翻译]


SWEPT SINE VIBRATION TESTING 扫频正弦振动试验

Vibration qualification of satellites and spacecraft requires swept sine vibration testing of actual flight hardware. Swept sine qualification tests consist of subjecting

the test article to sine vibration, typically in the range of 5-100 Hz. This is normally done at very high sweep rates to minimize the number of cycles at resonant

frequencies. Test levels are selected to keep exposure of the test article within acceptable levels. Force and acceleration limiting prevent over-test. Notching, or

reducing the vibration amplitude over specific frequency ranges, also prevents excessive loading of the satellite or spacecraft structure.Testing starts with a low-level sweep and is repeated at increasing levels until the full-level sweep is completed. Between each sweep, data is analyzed, and changes can be made to control and limit profile levels to ensure maximum allowable levels are not exceeded. After the full-level sweep is completed, the low-level sweep is repeated and compared with the previous one to ensure there are no changes in the dynamic response of the test article. This sweep test sequence is performed for the

three orthogonal axes.

卫星和航天器的振动鉴定需要对实际飞行硬件进行扫频正弦振动测试。扫频正弦资格考核由科目组成该试件对正弦振动的测试,一般在5-100hz范围内。这通常是在非常高的扫描速率下完成的,以最小化谐振时的循环数率。选择测试级别是为了将测试项目的暴露保持在可接受的级别内。力和加速度限制防止过度测试。开槽,或降低特定频率范围内的振动幅度,也可以防止卫星或航天器结构的过载。测试从低级扫描开始,并在不断增加的级别上重复,直到完成完整级别的扫描。在每次扫描之间,都要分析数据,可以进行更改来控制和限制概要文件级别,以确保不超过最大允许级别。完成全级扫描后,重复进行低级扫描,并与前一级扫描进行比较,以确保测试件的动态响应没有变化。执行此扫描测试序列

三个正交轴。[自动翻译]


SHAKING A SPACE TELESCOPE 振动太空望远镜

NASA Goddard Space FlightCenter recently completed vibration testing of the Optical Telescope Element/Integrated.Science InstrumentModule for the James.Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The JWST.test article weighedaround 15,000 lb(6,800kg), with a high center of gravity.that generatedsignificant overturning.moments when subjected to excitation.during test. Thesecomplex dynamics, in.addition to the extremely high value of the.test article,further elevated the need for.a vibration testing solution that integrated.advancedsafety features with sophisticated.vibration test control.

The Data Physics and Team Corporation.vibration test system usedfor the JWST testing consists of a 50,000 lbf (220,000N).electrodynamicshaker with a large slip.

table for the horizontal plane, and a guided.head expanderconfigurable for one or two.50,000 lbf shakers in the vertical plane.Theshakers are controlled with the Data.Physics Matrix Vibration Controller.Thereare several critical systems which ensure the safe operation of the test. The slip table and guidedhead expander

include linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensorsto detect overtravel of the tables. The hydraulic power supply provides monitoring ofhydraulic pressure and can provide a signal to shut down the test if thepressure is not within acceptable levels. The shakers also have an LVDT todetect armature overtravel and can provide a signal to shut down the test.Theamplifier has settings for maximum voltage and current. All these measurementsare linked to the control system. Exceeding any of these levels will shut downthe test.As further backup protection, an independent measurement system monitorsvibration at locations not measured by the vibration control system. Thismeasurement system can assign abort profiles to any measurement channel. If levelsexceed limits defined in these profiles, the independent measurement system cansend a signal to the vibration controller to shut down the test.


SAFE SHUTDOWN SYSTEM 安全关机系统

The safety systems described above detect an over-test condition and trigger an immediate hard shutdown. While this quickly stops vibration from the shakers,

the instantaneous stopping of excitation can create transients – rapid deceleration up to hundreds of g. This can be more harmful to the flight hardware being

tested than the over-test condition that caused the shutdown.

Data Physics and Team Corporation have created a comprehensive system for managing all the safety systems and ensuring a smooth, safe, soft shutdown of

the shaker system given a shutdown event and trip. The safe shutdown system used at NASA for testing of the JWST had several major components – the Table Health Control System, an advanced vibration control system, as well as a specially designed amplifier.


TABLE HEALTH CONTROL SYSTEM 台面状态控制系统

This is a computer and sensor system that protected the JWST from potential damage due to unexpected vibrations, should failure of the vibration test system have

occurred during testing. JWST tests required that no unexpected vibrations should be introduced during sine testing, such as from the failure of a bearing that supports the vibration table. The Table Health Control System monitors various subsystems including overall hydraulic supply pressure, hydrostatic supply pressure locally at each bearing, and pneumatic pressure and position of the air isolation system. It also provides communication between the interlocks and the vibration controller.It must provide a ‘permissive’ signal,indicating that all systems and the table are working and in the proper state, for the vibration controller to start a test. Upon detection of a fault condition, the Table Health Control System will stop the vibration test at a user-definable rampdown rate. It also controls the startup

operations for the shaker systems, bringing the vibration test system from park to the operate state in a controlled manner. At the end of testing, the Table Health Control System turns off the hydrostatic bearing and air isolator.


VIBRATION CONTROL SYSTEM 振动控制系统

The vibration controller has modifications to the sine signal generation code to ensure that all shutdowns from the controller include a 400ms ramp-down. The sine

signal generation code runs in the digital signal processor hardware on the controller front-end and receives instructions from the control loop processing code. A watchdog feature looks for instructions from the control loop. If the control loop does not issue a command to the drive generation within the expected time, a soft shutdown is initiated. This mitigates risk of over-test due to controller malfunction. All interlocks are connected to the tachometer input channel of the controller

hardware front-end. The tachometer channel is continuously monitored to detect a trip of one of the interlocks. Trip of an interlock will initiate a soft shutdown within a few milliseconds. An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) provides the ability to continue operation of the vibration controller instrumentation after loss of power. Should power loss occur, the UPS signals the controller to initiate a soft shutdown.


MODIFIED AMPLIFIERS 改进后的功率放大器

The amplifiers that deliver power to the electrodynamic shakers are designed to support a soft shutdown after complete loss of power.Modifications to the amplifier include larger capacitors and a UPS that supplies power to IO modulators. Given a power loss event, these features enable continued operation long enough for the controller to smoothly shut down the test.

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